Tag Archives: Agribusiness

Sustainable Farming: small steps to a big tomorrow

Sustainable farming or in a broader term, Sustainable agriculture is using farming practices considering the ecological cycles. It is also sensitive towards the microorganisms and their equations with the environment at large.

 In simpler terms, sustainable farming is farming ecologically by promoting methods and practices that are economically viable, environmentally sound and protect public health.

It does not only concentrate on the economic aspect of farming, but also on the use of non-renewable factors in the process thoughtfully and effectively. This contributes to the growth of nutritious and healthy food as well as bring up the standard of living of the farmer.

Our environment, and subsequently our ecology have become an area of concern for us over the last few decades. This has increasingly led us to contemplate, innovate and employ alternate methods or smaller initiatives to save our ecology. One such initiative is sustainable farming. It simply means production of food, plants and animal products using farming techniques that prove to be beneficial for public health and promote economic profitability. It draws and learns from organic farming

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Sustainable farming or Sustainable agriculture helps the farmers innovate and employ recycling methods, this apart from the conventional perks of farming. A very good example of recycling in sustainable farming would be the crop waste or animal manure. The same can be transformed into fertilizers that can help enrich the soil. Another method that can be employed is crop rotation. This helps the soil maintain its nutrients and keeps the soil rich and potent. Collection of rainwater via channeling and then its utilization for irrigation is also a good example of sustainable farming practices.

Sustainable Farming Methods or Practices

Let us see various methods or practices of Sustainable farming in detail:

  1. Make use of Renewable Energy Sources:The first and the most important practice is the use of alternate sources of energy. Use of solar, hydro-power or wind-farms is ecology friendly. Farmers can use solar panels to store solar energy and use it for electrical fencing and running of pumps and heaters. Running river water can be source of hydroelectric power and can be used to run various machines on farms. Similarly, farmers can use geothermal heat pumps to dig beneath the earth and can take advantage of earth’s heat.
  2. Integrated pest management:Integrated pest management a combination pest control techniques for identifying and observing pests in the initial stages. One needs to also realize that not all pests are harmful and therefore it makes more sense to let them co-exist with the crop than spend money eliminating them. Targeted spraying works best when one need to remove specific pests only. This not only help you to spray pest on the selected areas but will also protect wildlife from getting affected.
  3. Crop Rotation:Crop rotation is a tried and tested method used since ancient farming practices proven to keep the soil healthy and nutritious. Crop rotation has a logical explanation to it – the crops are picked in a pattern so that the crops planted this season replenishes the nutrients and salts from the soil that were absorbed by the previous crop cycle. For example, row crops are planted after grains in order to balance the used nutrients.
  4. Avoid Soil Erosion:Healthy soil is key to a good crop. Age old techniques like tilling the land, plowing etc still work wonders. Manure, fertilizers, cover crops etc also help improve soil quality. Crop rotations prevent the occurrence of diseases in crops, as per studies conducted. Diseases such as crown rot and tan spot can be controlled. Also pests like septoria, phoma, etc can be eliminated by crop rotation techniques. Since diseases are crop specific, crop rotation can work wonders.
  5. Crop Diversity:Farmers can grow varieties of the same crop yielding small but substantial differences among the plants. This eases financial burdening. This process is called crop diversity and its practical use is on a down slide.
  6. Natural Pest Eliminators:Bats, birds, insects etc work as natural pest eliminators. Farmers build shelter to keep these eliminators close. Ladybugs, beetles, green lacewing larvae and fly parasites all feed on pests, including aphids, mites and pest flies. These pest eliminators are available in bulk from pest control stores or farming supply shops. Farmers can buy and release them on or around the crops and let them make the farm as their home.
  1. Managed Grazing:A periodic shift of the grazing lands for cattle should be maintained. Moving livestock offers them a variety of grazing pastures. This means they will receive various nutrients which is good for them. The excreta of these animals serves as a natural fertilizer for the land. Change of location also prevents soil erosion as the same patch of land is not trampled upon constantly. Also by grazing in time and mowing the weeds can be gotten rid off before they produce more seeds and multiply.
  2. Save Transportation Costs:Targeting the sales of the production in the local market saves  transportation and packaging hassles. It also eliminates the need of storage space. Therefore when stuff is grown and sold in local markets, it makes a community self sufficient, economically sound, saves energy and doesn’t harm the environment in any way.
  3. Better Water Management:The first step in water management is selection of the right crops. One must choose the local crops as they are more adaptable to the weather conditions of the region. Crops that do not command too much water must be chosen for dry areas. Irrigation systems need to be well planned otherwise they lead to other issues like river depletion, dry land and soil degradation. One can also build rainwater harvesting systems to store rainwater and use them in drought prevailing conditions. apart from that municipal waste water can be used for irrigation after recycling.
  4. Removal of Weeds Manually:Farmers having small farms can use their hands to remove weeds from crops where machines can’t reach or where crops are too fragile. This is quite a labor intensive task and is not suitable for large farms. Apart from this, a farmer also has the option to burn the old crops so that weeds do not produce seeds and destroy rest of the crops. However, that will causepollution in airand cal also affect the soil quality.

Sustainable energy is not only economical but it also helps in the conservation of our natural resources. Sustainable farming also helps reduce the need for chemicals fertilizers and pesticides. This makes the process more organic and clean.

Benefits of Sustainable Agriculture

  1. Contributes to Environmental Conservation:The environment plays a huge role in fulfilling our basic needs to sustain life. In turn, it is our duty to look after the environment so that future generations are not deprived of their needs. Sustainable agriculture helps to replenish the land as well as other natural resources such as water and air. This replenishment ensures that these natural resources will be able for future generations to sustain life.
  2. Public Health Safety:Sustainable agriculture avoids hazardous pesticides and fertilizers. As a result, farmers are able to produce fruits, vegetables and other crops that are safer for consumers, workers, and surrounding communities. Through careful and proper management of livestock waste, sustainable farmers are able to protect humans from exposure to pathogens, toxins, and otherhazardous pollutants.
  3. Prevents Pollution:Sustainable agriculture means that any waste a farm produces remains inside the farms ecosystem. In this way the waste cannot cause pollution.
  4. Reduction in Cost:The use of sustainable agriculture reduces the need for fossil fuels, resulting in significant cost savings in terms of purchasing as well as transporting them. This in turn lessens the overall costs involved in farming.
  5. Biodiversity:Sustainable farms produces a wide variety of plants and animals resulting inbiodiversity. During crop rotation, plants are seasonally rotated and this results in soil enrichment, prevention of diseases, and pest outbreaks.
  6. Beneficial to Animals:Sustainable agriculture results in animals being better cared for, as well as treated humanely and with respect. The natural behaviors of all living animals, including grazing or pecking, are catered for. As a result they develop in a natural way. Sustainable farmers and ranchers implement livestock husbandry practices that protect animals’ health.
  7. Economically Beneficial For Farmers:In exchange for engaging with sustainable farming methods, farmers receive a fair wage for their produce. This greatly reduces their reliance on government subsidies and strengthens rural communities. Organic farms typically require 2 ½ times less labor than factory farms yet yield 10 times the profit.
  8. Social Equality:Practicing sustainable agriculture techniques also benefits workers as they are offered a more competitive salary as well as benefits. They also work in humane and fair working conditions, which include a safe work environment, food, and adequate living conditions.
  9. Beneficial For Environment:Sustainable agriculture reduces the need for use of non-renewable energyresources and as a result benefits the environment.

Due to population increase, it is estimated that by 2050 we will need approximately 70% more food than is currently being produced in order to provide the estimated 9.6 billion world population with their recommended daily calorie intake. This is by no means a small challenge, but unlike many other sustainability challenges, everyone can play a part. We all need to eat, but by simply reducing food loss and waste, as well as eating diets that are lower impact, and investing in sustainable produce, we can make a difference. From countries, to companies, right down to consumers, we all have a role to play. The challenge is simply making people care in a world where we are surrounded by such abundance.

Promoting the role of women in Agribusiness

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  By Gena Lubem

The responsibility placed on the shoulders of women in the rural areas to meet the daily food need of most families cannot be overemphasized. More often than not, they make significant contribution to food production and processing, but men seem to take more of the farm decisions and control the productive resources. For instance, in the area of land acquisition, in the rural areas, the women seems to be completely relegated to the background and made to depend entirely on the piece that the men folk may ‘graciously’ apportion to them.

In fact, it has been alleged in some quarters that as women play a dominant role in agricultural production; agriculture appears to be the occupation of 70.3 per cent of Nigeria rural women.

While presenting a paper on the topic: “Gender Issues in Agriculture and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Role of Women”, Yemisi I. Ogunlela and  Aisha A. Mukhtar, of departments of Public Administration, Faculty of Administration and Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, noted that, in as-much-as, such is the plight of women “yet it is known that agriculture has the largest chunk of the poor for women, the poverty is compounded by the fact that only 8 percent of women hold title to the land they work on”.

Most farmers in Nigeria operate at the subsistence, smallholder level in an extensive agricultural system; hence in their hands lies the country’s food security and agricultural development. Particularly striking, however, is the fact that rural women, more than their male counterparts, take the lead in agricultural activities, making up to 60-80 percent of labour force. It is ironical that their contributions to agriculture and rural development are seldom noticed. Furthermore, they have either no or minimal part in the decision-making process regarding agricultural development.

Gender inequality is therefore dominant in the sector and this constitutes a bottleneck. The women-in-agriculture programme in Nigeria, which was established in cognizance of this and the shortcomings  in  extension services for women farmers, saw the emergence of women groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and civil societies that gave rural women farmers a voice in order to effectively champion their cause. Even at that, many barriers remain and would have to be addressed to further enhance their role. Rural women farmers deserve better recognition and greater appreciation of their tangible contributions to agriculture and rural development as well as food security.

For the whole of Nigeria, economic considerations are a major determinant of the extent to which women are involved in farming and agro business related activities, as against processing and trading. Once men move out of farming into such non-farm occupations as factory work, mining and distribution of industrial goods, women take up food production for home consumption and for sale, regardless of which ethnic group they belong to, although in relative terms the restricting influence of some religion on the women in some parts of the country must be acknowledged.

The women are mainly involved in the production, processing and trading of such food crops as maize, rice, cassava, yam and palm oil. They are rarely connected with agricultural export crops such as cocoa, cotton and groundnuts.

Even though in the past, some woman farmers organizations and the civil society were established to harmonise the role of women involved in agriculture related activities with that of their men counterparts, no concrete achievement was not recorded in that regards. Such groups which confronted the issues in the 80s included Women Farmers’ Advancement Network (WOFAN) and Women-in-Agriculture in Nigeria (WAN) among others.

While writing in one of the national dailies,    Michael Aderohunmu insisted that, “the sector needs to advance and leverage on knowledge and capacity to transform ideas into marketable products that result in new business value addition. This is essential because trends and dynamic business environment require organisations to quickly sense market change and detect where the future demand may be. Redundancy from these financial institutions as a result of the reforms of the banking and financial institutions generally can be a potential human resource for the agribusiness sector, because the sector is a very dynamic and innovative one that has the capacity to absolve, train women in agribusiness knowledge and skill acquisition”.

Coming at the heels of the establishment of the ministry exclusively set aside to address the plight of women in all its ramification in Nigeria, more efforts aimed at alleviating the plight of women in the country were said to squarely placed at the doorstep of the minister in charge of the ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development.

The general understanding has been that, women in the rural areas need access to basic resources like revolving fund that would serve as social support initiative.  Activities of such fund would greatly contribute to the success of the Agriculture Transformation Agenda, ATA, of the present administration as well as fast track the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria.

Again, as women contribute significantly to the development of the sector in terms of what is consumed in the country, the Nigerian government should make it possible for women to massively enjoy the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Women in Agriculture in order to raise the access bar of women to agricultural land, inputs and resources, as well as make them benefit from the Nigeria Incentive-Based Risk Sharing System for Agricultural Lending (NIRSAL) programme.

There is also an urgent need to put in place systematic and comprehensive strategies to empower women in rural areas to maximize their potential which has a tendency of combating extreme poverty and hunger, and help them facilitate sustainable development in their communities.

If rural women had equal access to productive resources, agricultural yields would rise and hunger would decline because  empowering women requires a transformation in the way governments devise budgets, make and enforce laws and policies with the aim of including trade and agricultural policies that will engender small and medium, enterprises businesses.

No wonder in the 56th Special Session of the Commission on the Status of Women at the United Nations, New York, United States it was stressed that, all the structural, cultural, social and economic barriers that prevent rural women from participating fully in the economic and political life of their countries must be eliminated.